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The ammonites are a diverse subclass of widespread cephalopod mollusks from the Early Devonian-Late Cretaceous of the entire world. They, as a whole, were named in 1884 by Karl Alfred von Zittel. They were another group of successful animals (swimming in the oceans for about 334 million years), and are more closely related to squid and octopi than they are to the nautiloids.

PhysiologyEdit

Ammonites were unique mollusks. Many of them had a curly shell, and, although it is unknown how long their arms were, it can be assumed that they were long enough to capture food; as well as this, their eyes may have been as large as those of squid and octopi, and they may have had a small, keratinous beak hiding between their circular row of arms. Their bodies would have been covered in smooth skin, and mostly covered by their hard shells.

DietEdit

Ammonites were carnivores, either living as predators or suspension feeders. Predatory ammonites likely had long, hooked arms used for getting a hold of struggling prey, as well as a keratinous, scissor-like beak for crushing them and tearing them to pieces.

Ammonite genera (note that those are not all the ones that exist)Edit

GoniatitesEdit

Goniatites
Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Ammonoidea
Order Goniatitida
Family Goniatitidae
Subfamily Goniatitinae
Genus Goniatites
1st Species Goniatites sphaericus
2nd Species Goniatites striatus
3rd Species Goniatites crenistria
4th Species Goniatites nitidus
Other attributes
Time Range 409.1-205.6 mya
Location Czech Republic, Spain, United States of America, Germany, Ireland, Morocco, United Kingdom, Italy
Name Meaning  ???
Physical Dimensions 17 centimeters long
Dietary Classification Carnivore

Goniatites is a goniatitid goniatitid ammonite from the Early Devonian-Late Triassic of Czech Republic, Spain, the United States of America, Germany, Ireland, Morocco, the United Kingdom, and Italy. It was officially named in 1825 by Wilhelm de Haan. It would have swam in inland seas, as opposed to the open ocean preference of other ammonites. It was a predator, feeding on small invertebrates.



















AsterocerasEdit

Asteroceras
Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Ammonoidea
Order Ammonitida
Family Arietitidae
Genus Asteroceras
1st Species Asteroceras stellare
2nd Species Asteroceras obtusum
3rd Species Asteroceras saltriensis
4th Species Asteroceras reynesi
Other attributes
Time Range 205.6-189.6 mya
Location United States of America, Canada, China, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Turkey, United Kingdom
Name Meaning Star horn
Physical Dimensions 94 centimeters long
Dietary Classification Carnivore

Asteroceras is an arietitid ammonitid ammonite from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic of the United States of America, Canada, China, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. It was named in 1815 by James Sowerby. It was a truly big ammonite, and had the generic ammonite lifestyle, swimming around in open oceans. It was a predator, feeding on small invertebrates.


















PerisphinctesEdit

Perisphinctes
Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Ammonoidea
Order Ammonitida
Family Perisphinctidae
Genus Perisphinctes
1st Species Perisphinctes boweni
2nd Species Perisphinctes hetaerus
3rd Species Perisphinctes roubyanus
4th Species Perisphinctes stenocyclus
Other attributes
Time Range 166-145 mya
Location Worldwide
Name Meaning  ???
Physical Dimensions 42 centimeters long
Dietary Classification Carnivore

Perisphinctes is a perisphinctid ammonitid ammonite from the Middle-Late Jurassic of the entire world. It was named in 1869 by Wilhelm Heinrich Waagen. It lived the generic ammonite lifestyle, and often serves as an index fossil for the Jurassic. It was a predator, feeding on small invertebrates.

















ParapuzosiaEdit

Parapuzosia
Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Ammonoidea
Order Ammonitida
Family Desmoceratidae
Genus Parapuzosia
1st Species Parapuzosia seppenradensis
2nd Species Parapuzosia boesei
3rd Species Parapuzosia americana
4th Species Parapuzosia bradyi
Other attributes
Time Range 95-70 mya
Location France, Germany, Spain, United States of America, Cuba
Name Meaning Near snail axis
Physical Dimensions 5 meters long
Dietary Classification Carnivore

Parapuzosia is a desmoceratid ammonitid ammonite from the Late Cretaceous of France, Germany, Spain, the United States of America, and Cuba. It was officially named in 1913 by Ronald M. Nowak. It was the biggest ammonite to exist; however, it still would have been prey to predators such as Tylosaurus. It was a predator, feeding on small invertebrates.



















BaculitesEdit

Baculites
Classification
Kingdom Animalia
Phylum Mollusca
Class Cephalopoda
Subclass Ammonoidea
Order Ammonitida
Suborder Ancyloceratina
Family Baculitidae
Genus Baculites
1st Species Baculites vertebralis
2nd Species Baculites gilberti
3rd Species Baculites perplexus
4th Species Baculites asperiformis
Other attributes
Time Range 100-66 mya
Location Worldwide
Name Meaning Walking stick rock
Physical Dimensions 2 meters long
Dietary Classification Planktivore

Baculites is a baculitid ammonitid ammonite from the Late Cretaceous of the entire world. It was named in 1801 by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. It was a unique ammonite, as its shell was somewhat straightened out, somewhere between the completely straight shells of Paleozoic nautiloids such as Orthoceras, Cameroceras, and Endoceras, and the completely curled shells of other ammonites. It was a planktivore, sucking up colonies of plankton drifting through the water.














In popular cultureEdit

Due to documentaries and books focusing on prehistoric animals, ammonites have become the most popular prehistoric mollusks to have ever existed. Since then, they have been featured in major pieces of media like Fantasia and Dinosaur Revolution; in these pieces of media, they are often depicted as squid-like predators with long tentacles. So far, their biggest public appearance was in the first episode of the 1999 documentary, Walking with Dinosaurs, where the widespread ammonite genus, Perisphinctes, was shown as a common animal in Jurassic Britain, living alongside the many marine reptiles that swam the seas (and had sometimes tried to eat it).

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