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After rainforest collapse brought the Carboniferous to an end, the Permian period started. During this time, all the landmasses of the world combined together into a large supercontinent known as Pangaea. Most of Pangaea consisted of deserts, although swamps and rivers were present. In terms of animals, the synapsids diversified quite a bit, becoming the dominant land vertebrates of the time; near the start of the period, they were present in the form of primitive, reptilian pelycosaurs, while later on, they evolved into more advanced, mammalian therapsids. As well as this, the reptiles also diversified, growing to large sizes, evolving protective armor, taking to the water, and even evolving lighter bones and stronger muscles. Meanwhile, the amphibians and fish remained common. As well as this, the giant ferns that were present in the Carboniferous were eventually replaced by conifers, seed-bearing plants, and mosses. Soon, meteor strikes, volcanic eruptions, gas traps, and a runaway greenhouse effect would impact the Earth, driving almost all genera to extinction, ending the Paleozoic Era, and giving rise to the Mesozoic Era.

Lasted from 298.9-252.17 mya

Cisuralian Animals (note that those are not all the ones that exist)Edit

Guadalupian Animals (note that those are not all the ones that exist)Edit

Lopingian Animals (note that those are not all the ones that exist)Edit

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