Pulmonoscorpius is a centromachid scorpion (scorpionid arachnid arthropod) from the Mississippian of the United Kingdom. It was named in 1994 by Andrew J. Jeram. It was one of the biggest scorpions, only barely being beaten in size by the earlier Brontoscorpio.


Pulmonoscorpius resembled modern scorpions, with a rounded cephalothorax, long arms with big claws, 2 small claws near its mouth, 4 pairs of walking legs, and a long tail ending in a venomous stinger. However, instead of having eyes on the exact top of its cephalothorax, it had them near the front; as well as this, it may have had a single pair of large compound eyes near the front corners of the cephalothorax rather than 3 pairs of smaller eyes. Its body would have been covered in a hard, chitinous exoskeleton.


Pulmonoscorpius was a predator, preying mainly on insects and smaller arachnids, but also hunting small amphibians. Its large arm claws were used to get a hold of struggling prey while it subdued them with its stinger, while its smaller claws were used to rip off small chunks out of their bodies.


Pulmonoscorpius was quite similar to modern scorpions. However, similarly to some Devonian scorpions (and unlike modern scorpions), it had 2 eyes placed near the front of its cephalothorax rather than near the middle; it is unknown whether or not it would have had a single pair of large compound eyes in place of the 3 pairs of smaller eyes near the front corners of its cephalothorax, but if it did, it likely would have had better eyesight than modern scorpions. In order to hunt, Pulmonoscorpius would chase down prey before grabbing them with its claws and stinging them. It usually fed on arthropods smaller than it; however, its sting would have been able to dispatch small amphibians.

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